In Hungary, practical training can be pursued in the school workshop, or at the enterprise or other organization entitled to pursue practical training. Practical training is an apprenticeship necessary to obtain a certificate in a defined work area, in a defined job, the duration of which is specified in the base document of the training. In order to strengthen the dual character of vocational education and training, a basic principle is to learn a trade embedded in work activities.
Vocational education and training within the school system besides the provisions of the vocational and examination requirements is based on the vocational training framework syllabus issued for the given school type and qualification. The enterprise has to organize practical training by taking the aforementioned documents into consideration.
In the school system students cannot enroll to partial qualifications, except the students who learn the partial qualification in the “Híd” (Bridge) II. program (from September 1st “Híd” program for VET) or in a school for students with special needs.
Practical training consists of the practical training to be performed during the school year and an uninterrupted practical training outside of the school year, i.e. in vocational training within the school system practical training – except for the uninterrupted practical training and the makeup for the missed uninterrupted practical training – can be organized only during the months of the school year. During the autumn, winter and spring break no practical training can be organized, except for making up for missed practical training sessions without substantiate reason.
The institutional system of the apprenticeship contracts was regulated in such details in the Act on vocational education and training in 1993, which was unseen before. Since then, the conditions and contents, its operation has changed several times, in accordance with the needs indicated by the chamber. Due to these changes, it has become one of the core elements of dual vocational training by 2012. In the past 20 years the number of apprenticeship contracts signifying the essence of dual vocational training increased by 8 times, which can be regarded as a success story in the process of Hungarian VET development.